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在线捕鱼游戏

时间:2020-05-31 21:31:29作者:Mckay

导语:在线领A片【AG88.SHOP】在线捕鱼游戏Robinson Crusoe isl\and sets example】 fo】】r/ 】the world in con\ser/vation
在线捕鱼游戏Ic【eland's lar】gest national p\ark is h】oping to【 /gain UNESCO World\ Herit\age sta】tus at UN committe】e talks in】 Azerbaijan/.Vatnajökull Nati【onal Pa】rk is home to vast glaciers, utterly uni\nh【abit【ed land and ten ac\】tive v\olcanos. Despite the presence of o\p】posing elements/, the great land】scape h\as remained st【ab【l/e【 for/ more than 1,000 years. The meltin【g ice from the /glaciers f【uels some of Iceland'】s most powerful rivers. T】he seasonal ebb 】and flo\w of the ice 】i】s 【crit】ical in mainta/】】ining the/ sta】】bilit\y of the ecosystem of】 /Vatnaj&o】um】】l/;kull\, wh】ich covers 14% of Iceland.Now, however, r/ising temperatures are causing the gl【aciers to melt at unprec/e/d【ented rates. Every/ y\ear, more ice disappears,/ r/evea【ling 】new la\nd underneath the glaciers. In the/ last \century】 alone】, Vatnajök\ull has lost 10% of its volume.The a/re【a is so unlike /anyth】ing else /o\n earth that it has been used as a case study by as/tronauts. In the months pr\eceding the Apollo 11 mission in the late six\ties, Neil Armstrong and his c/olleagues visited the 】park to \study its l】un【ar】-like/ terrain. Som/e a】reas\ of Vatnajökull Nati\onal Park are utterly uninhabited by /lif】e, \be it animal o/r plan\t, render\ing it an ideal】 place to \stud\y moon-like geology.Water, fire /and ice, the elemen/ts that】 make up 【the uniqu\e park【 ar【e represen】ted on t/he nati\onal f\lag of /Ice\la】n【d, blue fo/r water, red for fire, and white】/ for ice. If granted /Wor\ld Heritage Sta【tu】s, Va\tnajöku】ll National Park】 \wil【l b【e the third】 Icelandic site to】 a\chieve the status.Want more【 news?】Video editor • Fr\ancois RazyShare this a【\/rtic】leCopy/pa\ste the 【ar【ticle video emb】ed /link【 bel【ow:CopyShareTweet【S//ha\resen\dShareTweet\SharesendMoreHid【eShar【eSendShareShareShareSe】ndShareShareYou m【ig/ht also l/ike 】 】 / \ 【 / 【 \ \Climate Change top of t\he agen\da as No【rdic mi【niste/rs m/ee】t /Germ/any's Merkel in Iceland 】 【 【 / 【 【【 \ 【\ \Tens of t】housands of Estonian】s perfo/rm mass folk singin【g 】 / \ 】【 Well-being agenda: d/oes this spell/ the e\nd for GDP? \ 】 More abou\t20-seconds【Icel\andEnvironmental protec/tionUNESCO Cultur】a/l 】Heritage ListEnviro/nment / 【 Browse today�【39;s ta】gsDo e【nvironmental documentaries actually have an impac【t on p【eople’s bad】 ha/bits?The Ol\d Port, Mars】eille\’s popular wa】terfro/nt, h\ides a dirty secret.Electric scooter【s, tires a【nd pla】s】tic bottles litter 【【the seafloor.Annual clean-up operationEver【/y 】【ye】ar, volunte/e/rs gat/her/ to clean up some of /the mess. Hundreds of scuba divers collect th/e \rubbish, whic】h is t【h/en【 sor\ted\ an【】d rec\ycled, or otherwise safely dispose/d】 of,【 by 】l】oc\al activists.&ldqu】o;We find a 【lot of【 scooters, ra【i【ling【s, cans, bottle【s,” says Angie Espine【l Caño【n, 】a volun【\t/eer with// Team 13. &ld【quo;The goal【 i【sn&rsqu/o;t just to clean up, it&rs/quo;s also to 】ra】】ise awareness】.&r/dquo;“Last year, we recover【ed 91【m3 /of \waste,” s/ays I\sabelle P/oi】tou/, anoth】er volunt【eer f】】rom the Merterre Associa/tio\n. “The year【 before it】 was 13】1m3, so \that’s a decrease of 40m/3. This/ year, j【udging \from what I c/an s【ee】 and my experience, \I’d say it&rsquo】;s les\s again."We fin】d a lot /of scooters, rail/ings, \cans and bot/tles. The goal isn’t just to clean up, it【’s also to raise awareness. 【 Angie Espinel Cañ/【on / Vo【luntee】r, Team 13 】 With smu\rfs 】for ma】scots, the\ event】 i【s】 a part of the "EU Be】ach Cleanup" campaign -\ h【elping to raise aw//areness of the Europe/an response /to th】e\ marine p】ol【lut/【i【on pro\blem【. One o/f【 the divers is Alai\n Dumor/t — 【the EU’s representa/tive in Mars/eille.“Some 】waste is potentially 】recyclable,&rd/quo; says Dum\ort【. “But 【unfortu\nately 【【not/ sin\【gle-use objects, which go strai\ght in the bi/n. That's why from 2021 the /EU /will 】be banni\】n/g all this kind of single\-use utensils &\mdash; pla】tes, s】tir【rers, cotton bu【ds, /and so on - all the things yo/u fr【】equently find on be】ac】】he\s will be banned.”Mos】t ocean waste co/mes from urban areasAn imp\ortant aspect of the campaign is public outre/ach. Mi】【llions 】of tons of/ waste - mostly coming from u/rban are\a】【s - 】en】d /up in \the ocean 】every/ yea\/r】/.】 It’s been calc\ulated that on every square】 mile /of ocean, thous【ands of piec】es o\f rubbish \are floating./“The fig\ures【 【show that【 80% of marine li\tter originates on land,” ex\pl】ains Olivier Bianchimani/, th】e dir】ector of Septentri\on 】Environneme\nt. “It'【s eithe【r w/ashed away【 by 】/rivers or dis【carded/ d【irectl】y into/ the sea. As you can imagi\ne, it wasn't wind that brough】t r/ailings and bicycles /here.”At \over 【7【0 beach cle】an\up eve【nts organised t\his year b【y the EU a【nd the UN, almost 40 /000\ participants collect\ed ar】ound 】850 ton/s of waste &md\ash; from Camb【/odia to Haiti - and Argenti/】na to】 No【rway.The】 figu/】res show 】\】that 80% of ma/【rin\e litter ori】ginates【 on la/nd. 【 【 【 【Ol【ivier Bianchimani 【 【 Director, Septent】r/ion】 Environnement 【 &ldqu】\o/;This needs to be s/een i/n a【 much broade\r c【ontex】t,&rdq【uo; says Dumort. \&ldqu\o;Ot】herwi【se t\】his would be a loca【l event,【 and you’d be asking \wha\t's】 Europe go【t to do with it. Europe's involved/ precisely because this is a globa】l problem, and 】requi】res a whole s/eries 】o】f a/ct/ions and laws a】t an i】nternational l\/e】v】el.”The Euro/pean Union is\ leading the globa】l 】fight \aga/inst marine li】tter.【 Be//sides its 【policies curbing single-use p\【lastics【 and re/ducing waste from lost fishing gear, the /EU has earmark】/ed\ €350 million for research an【d deve【lopment.Mini-cata】maran scoops】 debris from t\he wa】ter\One/ of the EU-supported tec/hnologies is WasteSha【rk,【 devel【oped in Rotterd】am. A re\motely contr\olled 【m【in\i-catamara】n removes plastics /and othe【r floating deb【ris from【】 the surface of t/he water. Its sen【sors can monito【r pollution levels and \other environmental indi\cator】s. It's electri\call/y powered, emission-\free and ca\n collect hundreds of】 kilos of rubbish/\ at a time.“What we'/re】 trying to do is 】create a \small /enough vessel that will 【get into ti】ght spaces w\here waste col\lect\s, particularly in ha/【rbours and ports, and s/top all【 that waste bei【ng taken out into the greater ocean," says Richard Ha【rdiman, the 【founder on Ranmarine T\echn】ologi/es, the startup behi】nd WasteShark.【The bas】ic function of the WasteShar【/k is very simple. But \ins】ide, it【's a】lways changing &mdash】; 【we【're al【ways trying to make it lighter, mo\re eff/icient/, ea】s\ier to do maintenance on. \ /T】\essa Despinic \ 【 / WasteS【hark】 Design Engineer \ 【 】 / \Ranmarine alrea【d【y has c】us】t\omers in s\everal countries. Enginee【rs ar【e workin\g to make the d\evice\ ful【ly auto\nomous — so it】 can\ c】ollect litter and br\ing 】it back t/o the /recharging station /wi【t【h the need for a pilot.“The】】 basi】c \【【fun【ction】 】of the Wast\eShark is very simple,” says 】d】esi/gn engineer Tess\a Despinic. 】&ldq【uo;It just s】wi】m\s around and collec\t\s【 【tras【h from the su】rface. B【u\/t inside, it's alwa\ys chang/【ing — we're【 \always trying to mak//e it 】\lighter, more effic】ient, easie】r to 】do maintenance\ on. And we're also【 building a\n a【utonomous version t/hat will swim \aroun】d according】 to/ waypo/ints that yo\u give it. So w【e're a\lways wor【king on th】at and】 maki】ng it better.】"I\n the near future\, the de/velop/e】【rs envisage swarms 【of their rob【ots \picking up floa/】ting rubbi/【sh.“I have\ /a】 vision in my hea【【d that keeps m\e】 going,” says Hard/iman. “Tha/t is what we'd be sitt/ing in a\ c\ontrol room an】d from our site, we could see whe】re e/very drone is acros【s th\e planet, how many are【 operating, how 【/much waste is bei\】ng caught — an/d actually see the real impact 】of 】that these things are ma【king around the wor】ld."Technical s【【olutions an】d clean-up campaigns are important. But the simple way】 to keep our se【as】 \hea】lt【hier is to\ drop less litter — a】】nd】 tha【t’s】 a lesson for childre\n and/ adults alike.121212121Share\ t/his articleCopy/past】e the a】rticle v\】id】eo 【embe【d li】nk below:CopyShareT/weetSharesendS/har【/】eTweetSharesendMo/reHideShareSendShareSha/reShareSendShareShareYou migh】t also like \ / 】 Wha/t/’s killing/ ou\r und】erwater ecosystems? / 【 Mor\e 【abo\【utContamination of wate【rEnvironmen\tal prote】ctionSea Most viewe/d 】 \ 】 W\hat influence on \climate is 】the coron/avirus】【 】\lockdown really having? 】 【 【 \ The new AI system saf/egu】/【arding pre/mature /babi】es\ from infect\io\n 】【 Messenger/ RNA: 【the mo/【lecule that may teach our bodies to beat c/ancer 【 】 / \ 【【 【 【 Apple a】】nd Google /say they\'ll wor\k toge\ther to trace spread of cor】onaviru】s vi\【a smartphones / Ho/w EU fundin/g is ch\anging the f/ace of Lat】vian innova/ti/on / Brow【se today's ta/gs

Milk-】made fashion from】【 Tu】sca【ny

What is Earth Day/? | Euronew【s answersMEPs ba/ck initiati\ve to reduce p/lastic waste a\n\d improve water quality,见下图

\Founda/tion promot【es sustainable food 【product/i】【onGra/pe skin leather\ is one of the】/ alternativ/es. \Ic【eland's lar】gest national p\ark is h】oping to【 /gain UNESCO World\ Herit\age sta】tus at UN committe】e talks in】 Azerbaijan/.Vatnajökull Nati【onal Pa】rk is home to vast glaciers, utterly uni\nh【abit【ed land and ten ac\】tive v\olcanos. Despite the presence of o\p】posing elements/, the great land】scape h\as remained st【ab【l/e【 for/ more than 1,000 years. The meltin【g ice from the /glaciers f【uels some of Iceland'】s most powerful rivers. T】he seasonal ebb 】and flo\w of the ice 】i】s 【crit】ical in mainta/】】ining the/ sta】】bilit\y of the ecosystem of】 /Vatnaj&o】um】】l/;kull\, wh】ich covers 14% of Iceland.Now, however, r/ising temperatures are causing the gl【aciers to melt at unprec/e/d【ented rates. Every/ y\ear, more ice disappears,/ r/evea【ling 】new la\nd underneath the glaciers. In the/ last \century】 alone】, Vatnajök\ull has lost 10% of its volume.The a/re【a is so unlike /anyth】ing else /o\n earth that it has been used as a case study by as/tronauts. In the months pr\eceding the Apollo 11 mission in the late six\ties, Neil Armstrong and his c/olleagues visited the 】park to \study its l】un【ar】-like/ terrain. Som/e a】reas\ of Vatnajökull Nati\onal Park are utterly uninhabited by /lif】e, \be it animal o/r plan\t, render\ing it an ideal】 place to \stud\y moon-like geology.Water, fire /and ice, the elemen/ts that】 make up 【the uniqu\e park【 ar【e represen】ted on t/he nati\onal f\lag of /Ice\la】n【d, blue fo/r water, red for fire, and white】/ for ice. If granted /Wor\ld Heritage Sta【tu】s, Va\tnajöku】ll National Park】 \wil【l b【e the third】 Icelandic site to】 a\chieve the status.Want more【 news?】Video editor • Fr\ancois RazyShare this a【\/rtic】leCopy/pa\ste the 【ar【ticle video emb】ed /link【 bel【ow:CopyShareTweet【S//ha\resen\dShareTweet\SharesendMoreHid【eShar【eSendShareShareShareSe】ndShareShareYou m【ig/ht also l/ike 】 】 / \ 【 / 【 \ \Climate Change top of t\he agen\da as No【rdic mi【niste/rs m/ee】t /Germ/any's Merkel in Iceland 】 【 【 / 【 【【 \ 【\ \Tens of t】housands of Estonian】s perfo/rm mass folk singin【g 】 / \ 】【 Well-being agenda: d/oes this spell/ the e\nd for GDP? \ 】 More abou\t20-seconds【Icel\andEnvironmental protec/tionUNESCO Cultur】a/l 】Heritage ListEnviro/nment / 【 Browse today�【39;s ta】gsHow Western wi/ll Sa】udi Arab【ia go t\o【 attr】act tourists?Text sizeA/aAaWh/en it comes/ to cr\ime re】porting, th【e med\i【a\&rsq/u\o;s /coverage is de【cid】edly 【human-fo】cus【ed. We tend to\ see re/p【orting on illega】【l drugs an【d weapons,\ but rarely 【on the expl\oit\ation of our 】natural resources, despit\e the fa/ct t\hat it \happen/s all over the globe a\n【d is a cri/mi】nal of/fe【】nce.【 The 【pro\blem is, environmenta\l crimes/ a】r】e hard to track and hard t【o prove.Arthur Par&eac\ute; is an envir\onmental crime/ rese/archer wh\o has ma】de it his life&rsquo【;s\ aim to co/me up with solut\ions【 to ensure pe】/rpet\rators /are】【 held accountable. Having/ grown up in Cost】a Rica, he spe】nt his c【hi/ldhood immerse【d in 】n\atur\e, and afte/r a fi】rst 【career in t\echnology and in【vestigating /money【 la】\undering/, /he de【cided\ to focus on what/ he knew best &ndash【/; preven/tin】g the d【estruction of o【\ur natural world.“I 】li【ved on the b【e/ach,/ g】oing surfing a【nd hiking /ev\er\y day,&/rdquo; he says. “Mov\ing to the urban streets of 【Paris \was a shock.&rdquo【\;Alongside a team o\f environment【al \lawyers at G&】】ea/cute;os/mi【ne/ in Pa【ris,【 Par&eacu\te; works to【 ex\pos\e c/rimes such as illegal w】ildlife// t【rade, res/ource extraction and pollution. H/is technical adv\【【isors c【onduct criminal analysis and investigations us\ing economic, huma\n and cyber int】el【ligence.【 The data they share can\ then be【 u】s】ed】 in ecological s【tudies or by the 【media to increa\se public \awar【en【e\/ss.The 】map gi\vin\g a\ 【vo/i】ce to the v/oi【】ce/le/ssParé’s latest feat is a tool called the Eco Crim/e Map, which【 allo【ws 】【an【o】】nymous】 users to \/repo/rt environmental crimes from wh/er】ever th/ey are in the worl】d. I/n many /countri】e\s, fear/ of politi\cal ret】aliation【 prevents victims and witnesses from 】repor【ting c【rimes to the\ author】ities. Hence, a map w/hich tracks eco crime in 【【real ti\me cou\ld 】change the way c】orru/ption is dealt with, by dr\awi\ng 【【a【ttenti【】on to c【rimin【/al trade routes. So f\ar - 178 crimes have been sha/red.&ldqu】【o;The g】oal is 】to】 ce\ntralise data related to envir】o/nmental cr】imes,【 o【btai】n information to comp】\are op\erating modes/ with other illicit indu】/stries 】and finally, to give a secure voice/ to the【 vi】ctims and witness\es of these c【rimes wit】hout ri】sk of reprisal】s,” /Par&eac】ute;】 tells Eu】ronews Living, pointing to t\】he map bel】ow..embed-container {position: re【lative; padding-bottom: 80%; height: 0; max-】【wid/th: 100%;} .embed-container iframe, .embed-c\ontainer object, .embed-c/ontainer iframe{posi/【【】tion: a【b【s/olute【; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100/%; he】ight:】 100%;} small{posit/ion: 】ab/solute; z-index: 40; bottom: /0; margin-bottom: -/15px;}Agrandir la carteRed is 】poac】h】in/\gOrange is pollu/tionGreen is illegal ext【raction\B/\lue is an/imal\ traffick/ingYello/w is】 s】anitaryPurpl【e is illegal loggin】gIf \an on】line i/nventory exists 【at t/he】 click /of a butt【on, Par&e\acute; hopes journal/ists, NGOs an】】【d authorities can make \use of the data and ex】pose the frigh/t【ening volume of crime/s committed.Fundamentally, it is a】 t\ool designed to allow any【one 【to sha【re, testify o【r rela/】y infor\mation that affects a territor/y, pop/ulation or animal and\ plant 】species】. \T/he information is 100% enc\rypted for s【a】fety reasons.Is being able to \rep【ort th【e【 crimes/ 】en\ough?Dr. Em\anuel【a Orlando, 【lecturer in Environmen】tal 】Law at the Univers】ity o\f Su\ssex, calls the map an “interesting initiative” saying it will potentially b【e able to address one of the】 main\ pro】blems wi【th e】co crime. “M【ost of these illegal co】nducts causi【ng h\arm【 to the/ environment are often 】【not detected by police and other l【aw en\forcemen\t agenci】es.” She adds, “indeed/, th/e/s】\e i\llegal ac【/tivi/ties te/nd to affect the most vulnerable sectors of the /society,\ su【ch as 】women or \/mino/rity communities in the poorest reg/ions.】”For /Dr. O/rl】ando, w\hile providing the】 voic\【eless with the protect】i】on of【 anonymity is \“welcome and shoul\【d/ be widely /publicised," she emphasises that】 reporting is 】only the first s/t/e\p of ma】n】y.\ &ld/quo;Environmental cri】me【s【 ar】e a qui】te complex issue, particu\l【arly when this is linked to org】anised crime.”S【he conclu\des/, &ldquo//;for】 these typ/es o/【f crimes, an effective strategy needs to rely on a strong enf\orcement /sy】stem” and in】stituti】ona/l framewo】rk to pr【operly ad\dress the corrup【tion.How many/ billi】\on\s is】 the environmenta/l crime industry wor【th?Acco/rd【ing to Europo/l/, the Eur\opean Union&rsquo/;s law enforcement agency, the 【/annual 【va/lue of tran\snati【onal\ environm/ental crime】 is】 esti【mate/d t\o be worth &\e\ur\o;63 to 192 billi】on euros annu】a】lly. In fa\ct, /en【vironmenta/l crime can/ be as pro】fitable【 as i】llegal dru【g trafficking, but the sanction】s】/ are m/】uch lower, an/d it i\s hard/\er to de】tect. These fa【ctors make it highl】】y a/ttractive for or/ganised crime groups.G&】eac】u【te;osmine calls it “/t/he most l/uc【rat\ive but least repr】essed illicit】 industry i\n the world.&rdq【uo; 【Group】【s are 【known to orchest\rate fake c】ons\【e\【rvation programmes, 】for examp\le, that waste m】illions of dollars in the process.“D/on’t b】uy pets online,” Par&eacut【e;/ /wa\】rns. “Often dogs and cats are being tra】ffic】\k】ed】 il\legally】 】and/ have been【 used for animal \testing.” Th/ere is/ /e/ven a \new industry emerg/in】g called cyber poac】hing. “This is a new me\thod of smuggl/ing which/ takes place on social medi\a and marketplaces like /Ebay or Amazon, \where iv/ory a【nd rhi/no ho/rns are being sold.”\The reason thes【e crimes a/re】 too o【ften ignored comes 】down /to fear of/ “blackmail a【nd pressure.”Phot\os took on a/ mission fo】r tigers parts traffic/king in Europe. The fangs here\/ were sold /K eachArth】u/r ParéIs environme\ntal crime \the s/ame as eco/cide?All over the world, laws are in p/lace to prevent envi\ronmental c\rimes from posing thre\】ats /to our everyday lives. From the dum//pi\ng of /\hazardous waste, to overfishi【ng/ a protec/ted speci/es or ivory\ \traf/ficking.By co\ntrast, ecocid【e is all/ ab【out /creating a legal dut/y of\ care for life \on ear】th【. It is the \ca\ll for the envir\onmen】t to be given rights, much li【ke humans, and/ was borne out【 of the disregard for rising 】sea levels and global war\ming】 ar【ound the world.Th\e St】op Ecocide 】campaign w【as \steered by barrister】 Polly Higgins, who died in Apri【l 】201【【9, and has /since been/ led by environmental a【ctivist 】Jojo Meht】a and others.If legally\ implemente/d, ecocide would】 mean that any hu】man activi/ty causing extens/ive d/amage t\o ecosystem【s 【or harmin【g th】e wellbeing of a species would become a crim【inal offense. This would mak】e chi【ef 】executives【 and government ministers, who commission\ /the destruction of the natural /wor\ld, criminal/ly liable】.Thus far, it has not yet been accepted as an int【erna】tiona】l crime\ by 】the United Nations.Unlike the il】l】egal \trade in drugs and other illicit goods, &ld】quo;natural resources are finite a】nd\ cannot 【b】e replenished in a l\ab,” 】stat【es Int\erpol【. 】“As such, there is a sense o\f】 urgency to comb\at en\vironmental c】rime.”The \Eco Crime Map is curr\ently crowdfunded and in search of sponsors to \sta【y afloat. Curre】ntly, it is av】ailable in English, Spanish and French/ an/d can be separated into six categ/ories】: po\aching, illegal extr【a\ctio/n,】 sa【nitary, pollut\ion, animal trafficking and illegal logging.Share this articl/e 【 More from life。在线捕鱼游戏

Is f】ast/ fashion slowing down?Tex/t sizeAaAaOn【e in four workers】 would take a pay cut to /do/ w】ork that&rsquo\;s bett】er \fo】r the envir/onment, a】ccor/din】g to new【 re【search 【by【/ careers sit【e Totaljobs. That figu/re rises t【o half among millennials, aged\ 23-38.】Al\so known as Generation Z, mi【llennials told res】earchers they’】d be wi【lling t【o /drop &pou\nd;11,0 from their 【salaries o】n average【. That compare\s to £3,800 \Genera【tion X respond】ents【 aged b】etween 39-54 said they’d be willing/ to forgo for a g/reener j】ob role.In the UK, the\ surv【ey found 60% of j【obs】eekers resear\ched a potent/ial\ employe】r’/s sustainabilit\y and 】environme】nt cr\edentia/ls before/ accepting a positio】n. M\eanwhile, \f\our in every five empl【oyees【\ though\t comp\anies had/ a re【spons【ibility to lo\o/k after /the【 environment,【 with thre【e\ in【 f】ive agreeing their employers should be /【do】ing more.Read more | Noughti\e/s\ rap legend Akon to build gre/en cityA\roun/d th/e same amou/nt were\ willing to accept cuts in sp】【ending on activitie\s like team lunche\s, furniture an【d events.Environment\ attitudes inspi/red by David Att】enb/orough an\d Greta ThunbergSome 18% of wo【rkers/ in g\en/eral an/d 34% mi/llennial【s reported\ that they \would refu/se t【o work for a company 】they thought wa\s har】ming the natural world. The majority said they w】ere m/ore interest【ed in cl\imate issues】\【 than t】\hey wer\e five years ag\o, sayi【n/g a hig/her profi【le【 in the\ /media ha\d drawn【 their attenti【on.Greta Th\unberg】 arrives \in Spain for】 COP 25Copyrigh\t 2019 \The Associated Press.】 All r/ights reservedPedr【o RochaT\he influen【ce of n/at\ural】ist a\nd broadcaster Sir【 David Attenb【orough and young ac【tiv】ist G【reta Th/unberg were 】also cited as key drive/rs for pe】opl【e to\ cut their carbon footprint.“It has ne\ver bee【n more \i/mportant f/\or busi【nesses to be 【par\t of th】e solution to 【our pl】anetary /c【rises,” said Gudrun \C/artwright, envi【ronment d\irector 】at Bus】iness i【n the Community.【&ldquo/;Young people are no 】long】er begging leaders 】to 】change but tell】ing them /that cha/nge is comi\ng re\gardles【s. Businesses that i】gno】re\ it /face an imminent\ exis\te】ntial threat. Our futures depend on \rapid,【 】ambit/ious action, and we can all make a differen【ce.”Sh【are this article More from li\feMussel fa/rms 】fight a\g【ainst【 pollution in \the Baltic; one of the \most polluted seas in the worldFrom Amsterdam】 to Sy【dney on el【ec/t/r\icityText sizeAaAaThe d/ebate arou\nd the sustainability of le\a【ther p\rodu】ction is g【ai/ning m【omentum in th【】e fashion/【 industry. In 】recent y【ears, ra/ising awareness around the\ ecological impact o】f producin/g le】athe】r i/tems】 has prompt\ed a gro【w】】ing number of brands to rec\onside】r their u【se of the fa【bri】c in】 th】e/ir fashio【n lines/, as well as it has【 pushe/d new actors to \co】me up w\ith innovative solutions to creat\e more ecol【og\ically-【fr/】iendly le\ather/.The ec】ologica【l cost of leather productio】nT/he initial r】aw\ material for l\eather 【producti】/on is animal【 skin\ which orig【inates from ani】mal farming, a pro】ce\ss w\h【ich】 【usually rel】ie【s on huge amounts of feed, pasturel/and【, water, and】 fossil fuels with ne/gative ecologic\al impacts. However, leathe【r /is 】on】l】y a by-pro/duct in thi】s process, the animals being primarily raised for their me\【at/.Where/ the e【nvir【onmental cos/t of leat】her product\io\n really beco】mes visibl【e is at the /stage of the\ transformatio【n of the animal skin into the f】inal prod/uct. Since /leather is a perishable material, a number 】of methods have been used to st【abi【//lise t\【he raw mate【ri\al, and make it m\ore durable via t/h【e tanning process.This 】】is an indus【trial process that【 typically involves 【many ch\e】mical com】pounds and uses up a lot of water and energy. A number of hazardous mat\eri/】als a\nd /p】ollutants are/ releas\ed i】n 】the envir【onmen【t s\uch 【as mineral salts, lime slud】ge, sulfides, fo\rmaldeh\yd\e, coal-tar de/ri【vatives, a】nd various oil【s, dyes, and finishes (some o/f them cyani【de-bas【ed) are employed. . Water \i】s u【sed in】 high quantit】【y as a s/olvent, which is all the more problematic that a significa【nt n【umbe\r of tan【neries/ are lo【cate】\d in ar\id regions \of the world.To a】ddress these i【ssues, \the dev\elopment of new technologies t【o\ 】provide】 more ef【fici\ent processes for【 the pr\oduction of le】ather【 is under】way. So are efforts to promote the production of synth】etic leath\e\r, /w/hi】c/h could offer an interes【ting【】 alternative to th【e fas/hi【on indu【stry.Cow lea】\ther vs synthetic leatherFor 】change 】to happe】n in the leather i/ndustry tho】ugh, rob/ust assessme/nts of t\he/ dif/feren】t m】ethods us\ed in the ta【nn】ing process/ and compari\sons betw【ee\n cow lea】ther an\d other materi】als, are ne【ed\ed.Researchers have assessed the e【cological impact of different ta【nning methods to se【e if on【e was prefe】rable in t【】erms of its environment/al footprint.】 One o】f the techniques 【that some tanneries \employ to reduce the u【se\ of harmful che】micals is to 】resort to vege/table-tann【i【ng.This is an artisanal process that tak/【es advantage of /the t】an【ni\c acids na【】turally found i/】【】n some pl\】ants, by using the/ barks, branches,】 lea【ves or even s】\ome fruits in s/ome specific te\chniques. 【It is /【t\houg【ht to be more 【environmental/ly friendly than oth/e/r methods of processing /cow l\eather.To find out more,/ a 2017 stu【dy comp【a\r/ed this 【m【eth/o/d to more t\radit\ional 【methods using chemi】\cals suc\h a【\【s c/hromium-】/tanning, looking at th\e carbon, water, and energy 【footprint o\f the vege】\table】 】and chromium leather pro】ces/sing 】technology in 12 selecte/d tanneries in seven dif/ferent coun】/tries worldwide.The scientists act【【u】a【lly fo【und no sign/if【ican】t d\iff【erences in the fo【otpr【int of vegetabl/】e 】and chromium leather processes. Ho【wever, they cauti】on that this type of research is /challenging to do and /that tak/i】ng steps to improve the leather ind/ustry need to be base\d\ on evidence\-based resea\r【ch.“\Each tannery proved to be 【very individual, a\nd the\refore 】att【empting to pe/rform this type of analysis /without si【mply producin/g【 meaningle【ss generalities is 【a cha\llenge\ f【or companies, researcher\s, and regulator/s,&r】dquo; the 】researchers say. While【 /there is/\ little evide\nce \then that cho】osing a spec\ific m【ethod of leather tanning may be 【bette\r fo【】r the environment, \the evidence in favour of producing syntheti\c lea\ther ins】tead of leat】【her from /an\imals i\s mounting.Th】e 201】【 Pulse of T【he 】Fash/ion Industry Report published by the Global】 Fashion Agenda and The Bos/ton Con/\s】ult【ing Grou/p, was instrumental in highlig【ht【ing the\ idea that the prod】uctio/n/ of 】synthetic leather i\s less d】amaging /to the \environment/. It offer/ed 【some \of th【e most robus【t 】conclusions 【o】n th/e subject to date,】 p【ro】mpting\ 【stake】holders in the】 fashion indus/t\ry to switch to more ecological options, including synthetic leat【he】r【.Th】e /rep】o【rt indee\d/ showed \that among /all the materia】ls used in the fashion \ind】ustry, an】imal leather ranked thi【rd as the main contributor to global\/ warmi\ng. I【t also came first as the 【most damaging mat【erial/ when resea\rchers looked 【at th\】e issue of eutrophicat【】ion : its man【ufa】ctu【re was【 associated w】ith a relea/se of excessive chemical compounds and nu/trients/ into bodi【es of w】ater, frequently due to runoff from】 th【e land, causing\ dense growth of plant l\if【e\ and deat\/h /of 】anima【l\ life from lack of 【oxygen.More impor】tantl【y, the report found that synthetic leather /had on average on】ly /【a third of the environme】n】tal \impact of【【 cow leather. 】Switching to/ alternative materi】\【/a\/ls, including synthetic leather【, could thus directl\y improve a p\roduct&rs【quo;s 】ecological foot/prin】t.Gro】wing number of initiativesThe \mes【s【age【 has progressively\ been recei\ved\ and a growing numbe\r of initiatives i/llustrat】e the mo/ve to abandon cow l】eath】er for its synt】hetic a【lternatives. Exa\mples of a\dva/nces rely o【n the development a】nd the us【e of non/-convent/iona/【l fib/e\rs made fr【om substances /su【ch as c/itrus/ juice, grape 】plan/ts, or kelp, bioengin/eered \/leather, and the furt】her【 /promotion of bast f【ibers.In its m】】o/st re\ce/nt 2018 edition, the Pulse of Th【e Fashion In/dustry Report presen【te\d a num\ber of projects carri/ed by companies dedicated to su\stainable fashion and t【o pro/ducing synthetic【 le【at【her at the lowest ecological c/ost.Mi\lan-based compa【ny Vegea \is fo\r in【stance working to crea【te leather that is 】m/a【de entirely fr【o【m【】 grapes skin, stalks, an\d seeds and for th/is, it【 won th【e 20】17 H&M Global Change Award. Another good e\xa【【mple is the company known 【a】s 【Provenance Biofabrics which pr】oduces b】ioengineere【d leather【 by pr】ogramming /collagen molec】ules to self-assem\ble.These are 】just some of the initiative【s/ under d\eve【lopment, \and the f/i】eld is now undergoing a period of inno】】va【】tion and dynamism】. /Exactly】 what 2019 will bring is 【uncle【ar】, \b【ut one thing is cer【tain\ : the leather industry 【is/\ profoundly changing to b/ecome more sustainable.Writer: L\éa Su【rugueShare th】is article 【 】 More from style。在线捕鱼游戏

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